2. What is most often tested on animals and what tests are they part of?
Animals are used for many purposes: testing drugs, chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, paints, household products, food additives, cosmetics ingredients or Botox; research of therapeutic procedures and operations; production of various substances (e.g. in immunology) and in so-called basic research. There are many different types of test.
For example, the classic Draize test is still being performed despite a non-animal alternative having been available for many years. During the test, immobilised rabbits have the test substance injected into their eye, which is observed for damage. In a skin irritation test, guinea pigs or rabbits are shaved, with their top layer of skin also removed, and the substance applied to see if it damages the skin in any way. Animals are also forced to inhale substances, or have them injected into their stomachs. Botox is tested by spraying it into the mice's abdomen, which causes them to slowly die of suffocation over several days. If the animals do not die during the experiment, they are killed or left for further experiments.